Whiteness Standards

Questions? Contact Dave Wyble: Email or (585)259-5956
Quotation? Contact Kathy Springsteen: Email or (603)526-2420

FTS Acrylic Whiteness Standards

Avian Technologies is excited to announce that it is the sole manufacturer of the line of acrylic fluorescent standards formerly known as CCS (Color Control Systems) standards. Developed by the late Professor Frederick T. Simon, these standards can be ordered in a wide range of CIE whiteness, and are also available in high gloss or diffuse surface treatments. The sets described in the table below represent only a few variations. Please contact us to customize a series that meets your requirements.

The fluorescent properties of the FTS tiles make them ideal for applications involving the measurement of fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) common in office papers. In measurement it is always good practice to use similar standards whenever possible. See the plot below for a direct comparison of office paper and AT-FTS-15a.

For an excellent overview of whiteness in color, please view Dr. Claudio Puebla's comprehensive primer on whiteness.

Read this important note on our whiteness measurements.

Part #


AT-FTS-XXx Single standard (where XXx is 9a to 17b), 2"x3"x0.1". Provided with nominal spectral reflectance and CIE whiteness values. Specify matte or glossy surface.
AT-FTS-917 Full set of eight standards, including one each from level 9a up to and including 17b. Provided with nominal spectral reflectance and CIE whiteness values. Specify matte or glossy surface.

CIE Whiteness and TAPPI Brightness (glossy tile‡ measured SCE)

Standard Wcie Tcie TAPPI 525 brightness
9a 84.4 1.02 87.2
10a 93.7 -0.19 89.1
11a 107.9 0.30 93.9
12a 121.6 -0.16 99.7
13a 128.2 -0.50 102.1
14a 133.6 -0.07 103.6
† 17a+ 138.9 0.54 107.9
15a 142.4 0.81 109.6
† 18b 145.8 2.76 112.1
† 19b 148.5 3.38 114.2
† 17c 152.0 1.14 112.9
† 17b+ 154.4 1.51 114.0
17b 154.8 1.61 114.6
† These standards are experimental, and not regularly stocked.
‡While these measurements are of glossy tiles, the data for matte tiles are nominally very close to what is shown here.

Spectral and Colorimetric Data
click on images for larger views
FTS SCE Spectral Data FTS SCE a* vs b* Data
Spectral reflectance factor d:8 SCE
CIELAB a* b* (D65, 10° observer)

Comparison of Office Paper and AT-FTS-15a

Standard office paper and AT-FTS-15a, each measured under illumination approximating the UV content of D65. The plot shows very similar properties, especially in the critical absorption region (350-400nm) and emission region (400-475nm). The 15a is an ideal reference standard to use for qualifying paper with OBAs.

The range of available FTS tiles means that can can provide a standard that will closely approximate the fluorescent properties of your paper. We will measure your paper to help you identify the most appropriate FTS standard for your application.

Important notes on whiteness measurements
We calculate CIE whiteness and tint as described in "Whiteness Assessment: A Primer Concepts, Determination and Control of Perceived Whiteness." This excellent document was provided by Dr. Claudio Puebla of Axiphos GmbH, and is available for free download from the Axiphos GmbH site.

As of May 2014, we aligned our GretagMacbeth Coloreye 7000A to a traceable whiteness standard measured at NRC Canada. The UV content of out instrument was slightly low, and was increased to match the traceable standard. Therefore as a result of this recalibration our measured whiteness values are higher than previously reported. Our FTS formulations have not changed; if you want to purchase new standards that match your existing FTS standards, use the same part numbers.