Articles and Publications

While not a complete listing of relevant references for our standards and materials, this is a reasonably good collection to help the reader gain a knowledge on standards and instrumentation related to our products.

ASTM Standards on Color and Appearance Measurement
Edition, 2000, ASTM Committee E12, Appearance of Materials, Richard Harold, editor. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA. 19428-2959

Billmeyer, Jr. Fred W. and Saltzman, Max, 1981
Principles of Color Technology
nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. (Updated in 2000 by Roy Berns)

CIE 1986
Publication 15.2 (E-1.3.1) 1986.Colorimetry, 2nd Edition
Central Bureau of the CIE, PO Box 169, A-1033 Vienna, Austria

CIE 1998
Publication 130-1998, Practical Methods for the Measurement of Reflectance and Transmittance
Central Bureau of the CIE, PO Box 169, A-1033 Vienna, Austria

Eckerle, K.L., Hsia, J.J, Mielenz, K.D., and Weidner, V.R., 1987
Regular Spectral Transmittance
NBS Special Publication 250-6

Hunter, Richard S. and Harold, Richard W., 1987
The Measurement of Appearance
2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York

Mielenz et al. 1977. K.D. Mielenz, R.A. Velapoldi, and R. Mavrodineanu, eds.
Standardization in Spectrophotometry and Luminescence Measurements

NIST Special Publication 466, (SD Cat. No. C13.10:466), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 15 papers, reprinted from Journal of Research National Bureau of Standards, 80A, (1976)

Venable, Jr., W.H, and Eckerle, K.L., 1979
Didymium Glass Filters for Calibrating the Wavelength Scale of Spectrophotometers — SRM 2009, 2010, 2013, and 2014
NIST Special Publication 260-66, (Stock No. 003-003-02127-0), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

P.Y. Barnes, E.A. Early, and A.C. Parr, 1998
Spectral Reflectance
NIST Special Publication 250-48, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC

ASTM E 275
Practice for Describing Measuring Performance of Ultraviolet, Visible, and Near Infrared Spectrophotometers
ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

CORM Committee CR-4, 2000
A Bibliography of Flux Integrating Devices for Radiometric and Photometric Applications
Greg McKee, editor, Available from CORM,

ASTM E 958
Practice for Measuring Practical Bandwidth of Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometers
ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

R. Berns and L. Reniff, 1997
An Abridged Technique to Diagnose Spectrophotometric Errors
Color Research and Application, 22, #1, 51-60 (1997)

Billmeyer, Jr. Fred W., 1983
A National Standardization Program for Spectrophotometry
(Color Forum), Color Research and Application, 8, 182-186

Clarke, F.J.J., 1972
High accuracy spectrophotometry at the National
Physical Laboratory
Journal of Research National Bureau of Standards, 76A, 375-403 (reprinted as pp. 1-29 in Mavrodineanu et al. 1973)

Clarke, F.J.J. and Malkin, F., 1981
Development of a new series of ceramic colour standards
Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, 97, 503-504

Clarke, F.J.J. and Compton, J.A., 1986.
Correction methods for integrating sphere measurements of hemispherical reflectance

Color Research and Application, 11 253-262 (1986)

Edwards, D.K., Gier, J.T., Nelson, K.E. and Roddick, R.D., 1961
Integrating sphere for imperfectly diffuse samples
Applied optics 51, 1279-1288 (1961)

Fairchild, M.D. and Grum, F., 1985
Thermochromism of ceramic reference tiles
Applied Optics, 24, 3432-3434

Grum, F. and Wightman, T.E., 1977
Absolute Reflectance Of Eastman White Reflectance Standard
Applied Optics 16, 2775-2776

Malkin, F. 1987. Colour Standards
Advances in Standards and Methodology in Spectrophotometry
C. Burgess and K. Mielenz, eds. 209-233 Elsevier, New York

F.Malkin, J.Larkin, J. Verrill, and R. Wardman, 1997
The BCRA-NPL Ceramic Colour Standards Series II-Master spectral reflectance and Thermochromism data, JSDC, (113) 84-94 (1997)

Mavrodineanu, R. and Baldwin, J.R., 1975
Standard Reference Materials: Glass Filters as a Standard Reference Material for Spectrophotometry — Selection, Preparation, Certification, Use SRM 930
NIST Special Publication 260-51, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Wightman, T.E. and Grum, F., 1981
Low Reflectance Backing Materials For Use In Optical Radiation Measurement
Color Research and Application, 6, 139

Weidner, V.R., Barnes, P.Y., and Eckerle, K.L., 1985
A Wavelength Standard For The Near Infrared Based On The Reflectance Of Rare-Earth Oxides
Journal of Research of NBS, 91, 243-253

Baba, G. and Suzuki, K., 1999
Gonio-spectrophotometric Analysis of White and Chromatic Reference Materials
Analytica Chimica Acta, 380, 173-182 (1999)

Budde, W., 1976
Calibration of reflectance standards, Journal of Research National Bureau Standards
80A, 585-595 (reprinted as pp. 75-85 in Mielenz et al. 1977)

Chunnilall, C. Clarke, F.J.J. and Rowell, N.L., 2003
NPL-NRC Comparison of mid-infrared regular transmittance
Proceedings of the SPIE Vol 4826, 12-20 (2003)

Clarke ,P.J., Hanson, A.R. and Verrill, J.F., 1999
Determination of Colorimetric Uncertainties in The Spectrophotometric Measurement of Colour
Analytica Chimica Acta, 380, 277-284 (1999)

Erb, W.
Requirements For Reflection Standards And The Measurement Of
Their Reflection Values
Applied Optics, 14, 493-499

Grum, F. and Saltzman, M., 1976
New White Standard Of Reflectance
pp. 91-97 in publication CIE No. 36, Proceedings of the 18th Session CIE, London, 1975, Central Bureau of the CIE, PO Box 169, A-1033 Vienna, Austria

J. Leland, N. Johnson and A. Arecchi, 1997
Principles of Bispectral Fluorescence Colorimetry
in A.V. Arecchi (Ed.) Photometric Engineering of Sources and Systems, 29-30 July 1997, 3140, 76-87, San Diego, USA

Persky, M.J., 1999
Review of Black Surfaces for space-borne infrared systems
Review of Scientific Instruments 70 2193-2217 (1999)

Robertson, A.R., 1976
Standardization In Transmission Spectrophotometry
Journal of Research National Bureau of Standards, 80A, 625-630 (reprinted as pp. 115-120 in Mielenz et al. 1977)

Shakespeare, T. and Shakespeare, J., 1999
Problems with Colour Measurement of Fluorescent Paper Grades
Analytica Chimica Acta, 380, 227-242 (1999)

Simon, F.T., 1999
Serial Filter Method for Fluorescence Evaluation
Analytica Chimica Acta, 380, 417-424 (1999)

Springsteen A., 1999
Introduction to the Measurement of Colour in Fluorescent Materials

Analytica Chimica Acta, 380, 183-192 (1999)
(Proceedings of 3 rd. Oxford Conference on Spectrometry, Egham,UK 1998)

Springsteen A., 1999
Standards for the measurement of diffuse reflectance-an overview of available materials and measurement laboratories
Analytica Chimica Acta, 380, 379-390 (1999)
(Proceedings of 3 rd. Oxford Conference on Spectrometry, Egham,UK 1998)

Springsteen, A., 2002
Photometric Standards for Near-Infrared Spectrometry
in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J, Chalmers and P. Griffiths, eds. John Wiley & Sons

Springsteen A., 1997
Non-Standard Spectroscopic Measurements
Spectroscopy Magazine 12(5), 26-30 (1997)

Springsteen A., 1997
Techniques for the Measurement of Specular Reflectance
Spectroscopy Magazine 12(8), 24-28 (1997)

Springsteen, A., 2000
Standards for Reflectance Measurements, Parts I and II
Spectroscopy Magazine 15(5), 21-27 (2000); 15(6), 22-25 (2000)

Storm, S. and Springsteen, A., 1998.
Little sphere, big sphere — choosing the right integrating sphere size for your application
Spectroscopy Magazine 13(6), 9-14 (1998)

Verrill, J.F., Knee,P., and O'Halloran, J., 1995
A Study of the Uniformity and Thermochromism of Surface Colour Standards
Journal of the CIE, 1-4

Zwinkels, J.C. and Gignac, D.S., 1995
Development of a New Reference Spectrofluorimeter, in Spectrophotometry, Luminescence and Colour, Science and Compliance
C. Burgess and D.Jones, eds. 97-110 Elsevier, New York

Zwinkels, J.C., Noël, M. and Dodd, C.X., 1994
Procedures and standards for accurate spectrophotometric measurements of specular reflectance
Applied Optics 33, 7933-7944 (1994)

Zwinkels, J.C. and Gauthier, F., 1999
Instrumentation, Standards, and Procedures Used at the National Research Council of Canada for High-Accuracy Fluorescence Measurements
Analytica Chimica Acta, 380, 193-210 (1999)

Spotlight: Capabilities

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